THE AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN SLAVE TRADE WAS THE AMERINDIAN SLAVE TRADE-nothing more and nothing less
I will provide sources- NEW AND PREVIOUS ONES PRESENTED IN PRIOR POSTS; I will quote them verbatim so the audience can see that the PREDOMINANT TRADE WAS THE AMERINDIAN SLAVE TRADE; THE IMAGES OF WARRING CHIEFS, IN -FIGHTING AMONG TRIBES , MARCHING OF CAPTIVES TO SLAVE PORTS FOR EXPORTATION OF SLAVES. ETC ETC. WAS TOLD IN REVERSE; MOST OF THAT TOOK PLACE IN NORTH AMERICA AND PROVIDED A LARGE SOURCE OF SLAVES IN THE AMERICAS FOR EXPORTATION AND WAS IN DIRECT CORRELATION TO THE AMERICAN INDIAN WARS EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI. In fact, those wars were fought for the obtaining of slaves and land.!!
There was no singular triangular trade between the Americas, Europe and Africa. In depth study of the slave trade reveals there were SEVERAL TRADES THAT INVOLVED EACH OF THE EUROPEAN POWERS(English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Portuguese) THAT HAPPENED CONCURRENTLY OR SUCCESSIVELY.
Most slaves who were brought or kidnapped to the Thirteen British colonies — the Eastern seaboard of what later became the United States — were imported from the Caribbean, not directly from Africa.
When one studies the slave trade in detail and from multiple sources, it becomes apparent that Portugal had the longest consistent contact with the continent of Africa, slave trading from the 1400’s until the 1800s. This is why Brazil received the largest amount of Continental Africans as Brazil was colonized by the Portuguese.
The Spanish never set foot on the African continent; their involvement with the slave trade involved slave trading of Indigenous people in the Americas. If there were any continental Africans in the mix, they were traded to them from the Portuguese or they were carried as enslaved Africans from the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish were the first to start THE AMERINDIAN SLAVE TRADE IN THE CARIBBEAN AND EXPANDED TO OTHER PARTS OF THE AMERICAS.
I would like to focus my attention on the British and their role in the slave trade. Their role has been most skillfully hidden with the frequent use of the term “African”. However, if one studies their role in the slave trade from several sources it becomes apparent that the British SLAVE SOURCE was from both North America and British controlled Caribbean islands. The British had very limited contact with Africa prior to the mid 1800’s and the overwhelming majority of their slaves ORIGINATED IN NORTH AMERICA AND LATER EXPANDED TO THE BRITISH CONTROLLED ISLANDS.
Why are all the historic slave ports in the eastern Caribbean, which tend to be the capitals, located on the western shores of those islands as opposed to the eastern shores facing Africa, since that is allegedly where all those slaves originated? Why is Port Royal, a major port that received slaves in Jamaica, located in the southeastern region, facing their sister caribbean islands, as opposed to the EAST, facing Africa since that is allegedly where their origins lie?
1.Royal African Company: How the Stuarts Birthed Britain’s Slave Trade by Derek Wilson…”APART FROM THE THREE SLAVING VOYAGES LED BY JOHN HAWKINS IN THE 1560’S, THE ENGLISH SHOWED LITTLE INTEREST IN WEST AFRICA. SLAVING WAS RESUMED BY THE GUINEA COMPANY(FOUNDED IN 1618) AFTER ABOUT 1640 TO PROVIDE CHEAP LABOUR FOR THE NEW BARBADOS SUGAR PLANTATIONS, BUT THIS VENTURE ALWAYS STRUGGLED AND ITS ASSETS WERE ACQUIRED IN 1657 BY THE EAST INDIA COMPANY, WHICH HAD LITTLE INTEREST IN THE GOLD COAST. THERE WERE TWO DISINCENTIVES TO TRADE IN THIS AREA-PIRACY AND THE DUTCH.”
“THE LOCAL RULERS REMAINED IN CONTROL OF INTER-CONTINENTAL COMMERCE AND EUROPEAN AGENTS HAD NO POWER BEYOND THEIR TRADING POSTS. ONE REASON FOR THIS WAS THE PREVALENCE OF DISEASES TO WHICH THE VISITORS WERE PRONE, AND AS A RESULT THE GUINEA COAST WAS KNOWN AS THE “WHITE MAN’S GRAVEYARD.”
2. INDIAN SLAVERY IN COLONIAL AMERICA-ALAN GALLAY
PAGE 97. “A SECURE ASSUMPTION IS THAT MANY NATIVE AMERICANS, FROM VIRGINIA’S NORTHERN AND WESTERN FRONTIERS, ALL THE WAY TO THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY, WERE SHIPPED OUT OF VIRGINIA TO CARIBBEAN PORTS, SOLD INTO OTHER COLONIES, OR KEPT ON VIRGINIA PLANTATIONS WHERE THEY LABORED AS SLAVES…MANY INDIANS SO DISPLACED WERE PACKED ONTO STRANGE VESSELS AND CARRIED ACROSS STRANGE WATERS TO ANOTHER STRANGE COUNTRY, FORCED TO LABOR IN OTHER MEN’S FIELDS FOR OTHER MEN’S BENEFIT.”
PAGE 61…”MEANWHILE THOSE INDIANS ENMESHED IN SLAVERY AND SERVITUDE…FOUND THEIR STATUS ERODED FURTHER BY MID CENTURY AS MANY BECAME CLASSIFIED AS AFRICANS, WHICH STRIPPED THEM OF PROTECTION THAT INDIANS ENJOYED IN LAW.”
PAGE . 111…”THE AFRICAN SLAVE LABORERS, TRANSFERRED FROM WEST INDIAN PLANTATIONS….”
PAGE…114…”THE ENGLISH ENSLAVED AFRICANS ON THEIR PLANTATIONS BOTH IN THE WEST INDIES AND ON THE NORTH AMERICAN MAINLAND. BEFORE ESTABLISHING COLONIES, ENGLISH HAD PARTICIPATED IN THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE, AT LEAST AS EARLY AS THE LATE 16TH CENTURY, WHEN JOHN HAWKINS PROVIDED SPANISH COLONIES WITH SLAVES.”
PAGE 140…”IN THE 1690’S, CAROLINA TRADERS ESTABLISHED ALLIANCES WITH THE YAMASEES, CREEKS, CHICKASAWS, AND OTHERS, WHO THEN HUNTED INDIANS TO TO THE TIP OF THE FLORIDA PENINSULA, AND WEST ALL THE WAY TO TEXAS AND ARKANSAS. TENS OF THOUSANDS OF INDIANS WERE ENSLAVED, MOST EXPORTED FROM THE SOUTH TO THE WEST INDIES AND THE MORE NORTHERLY MAINLAND COLONIES. NOT UNTIL THE END OF THE SECOND DECADE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY WOULD THIS MASSIVE TRADE IN NATIVE AMERICANS BEGIN TO SUBSIDE IN THE SOUTH. BY THEN THE CAROLINIANS’ AFRICAN SLAVE PLANTATION SOCIETY WAS ON ITS WAY TO BECOMING THE DOMINANT ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL MODE IN CAROLINA, AND WOULD EXTEND ACROSS THE REGION. ITS FOUNDATION LAY IN THE ENSLAVEMENT OF NATIVE PEOPLES, A FOUNDATION CONVENIENTLY FORGOTTEN BY FUTURE GENERATIONS.”
PAGE 265..”IN OTHER WORDS, IT WAS NOT JUST THE BRUTALITY OF SLAVE RAIDING THAT CREATED INTER-INDIAN HOSTILITIES, BUT THE SLAVE RAIDS WERE ACTS OF WAR AND, ACCORDING TO THE SOUTHEASTERN INDIAN CODE OF WARFARE, THESE ACTS REQUIRED RETALIATION.”
PAGE. 356..”ONCE WARRIORS CARRIED CAPTIVES A SAFE DISTANCE AWAY FROM A RAIDED VILLAGE, THEY BOUND THEM TIGHTLY WITH CORDS, USUALLY AROUND THE HANDS AND NECK, AS THEY WALKED.”
PAGE 208. “INDIAN SLAVES WERE IN FACT COMMONPLACE IN SOUTHEASTERN INDIAN AND COLONIAL COMMUNITIES DURING THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. ….INDIANS WANTED ENGLISH PRODUCTS, PARTICULARLY GUNS, CLOTH, AND ALCOHOL, AND ENGLISH WANTED INDIAN GOODS,PARTICULARLY SLAVES AND PELTS. INDIANS AND ENGLISH CAPTURED AND SOLD TENS OF THOUSANDS OF INDIANS TO COLONIAL SLAVE TRADERS. CHARLESTOWN(CHARLESTON, SC) WAS THE CENTER OF THIS TRADE; FROM THERE INDIAN SLAVES WERE SOLD THROUGHOUT THE BRITISH COLONIES, PARTICULARLY TO VIRGINIA AND THE WEST INDIES BUT ALSO FARTHER NORTH TO NEW ENGLAND AND NEW YORK..”
PAGE 225. “THE YAMASEE WAR ACCELERATED THE DECLINE OF THE COLONIAL INDIAN SLAVE TRADE. INDIAN COMMUNITIES LARGELY STOPPED SLAVE RAIDING FOR COMMERCIAL TRADE….YET THE WAR DID NOT PUT AN END TO INDIAN SLAVERY OR INDIAN ENSLAVEMENT. DESPITE THE PROVEN DANGERS, THE COLONY DID NOT OUTLAW THE ENSLAVEMENT OF INDIANS. ..”
PAGE 226. ..AND FOLLOWING THE WAR(YAMASSEE WAR), COLONISTS DID NOT LIBERATE THEIR INDIAN SLAVES, THOUGH THE PROPORTION OF INDIANS IN THE COLONIAL SLAVE POPULATION DECLINED WITH THE DIMINISHING AVAILABILITY OF NEW INDIAN SLAVES AND THE BALLOONING IMPORTATION OF AFRICAN SLAVES.”
3. CHASING CARIBS: DEFINING ZONES OF LEGAL INDIGENOUS ENSLAVEMENT IN THE CIRCUM-CARIBBEAN, 1493-1592 BY ERIN STONE.
“BUT IT WAS NOT UNTIL FERDINAND AND ISABELA DECLARED IT LEGAL TO ENSLAVE ALL CARIB INDIANS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES RESIDING ON USELESS ISLANDS(ISLANDS LACKING GOLD) THAT THE INDIGENOUS SLAVE TRADE EXPLODED IN THE EARLY 1500’s. BY THE END OF THE SECOND DECADE OF COLONIZATION, THE GROWING TRADE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ENGULFED THE BAHAMAS, PUERTO RICO, THE LESSER ANTILLES, MUCH OF THE COASTLINE OF PRESENT DAY VENEZUELA, BRAZIL AND EVEN NORTH AMERICA. PRIOR TO SUFFERING ENSLAVEMENT THE MAJORITY OF THESE INDIVIDUALS WERE DECLARED TO BE “CARIBS”. THESE SLAVES, HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS, WERE PUT TO WORK ALONGSIDE THE DIMINISHING TAINOS OF ESPANOLA(AND LATER CUBA AND PUERTO RICO) IN GOLD MINES, CATTLE RANCHES, AND SUGAR PLANTATIONS.”
4. FROM THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. VOLUME THE THIRD. 1933
PAGE 290…BY COLONEL DON JUAN GALINDO, F.R.G.S. DATED GOVERNMENT HOUSE, TRUGILLO, 1833
“THOUGH FOUND IN THE CARIBBEAN ISLES BY THE EUROPEANS ON THEIR FIRST ARRIVAL IN AMERICA, THE CARIB RACE IS IDENTICAL IN OUTWARD APPEARANCE WITH THE AFRICAN NEGRO.”
CONCLUSIONS: THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THE ENSLAVED IN NORTH AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN WERE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, MANY MISLABELED AFRICAN. THE CARIBS WERE DESCRIBED AS RESEMBLING AFRICAN NEGROS AND WERE ENSLAVED IN THE 1500’S THROUGHOUT THE CARIBBEAN. WE KNOW THAT AFTER THE YAMASSEE WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, THE CARIBBEAN PROVIDED THE MAIN SOURCE OF IMPORTED SLAVES TO NORTH AMERICA AND WE KNOW THEY WERE PRIMARILY CARIBS/ARAWAKS. WE ALSO KNOW THAT THE INDIGENOUS SLAVE TRADE PROVIDED THE MAIN SOURCE OF SLAVES IN NORTH AMERICA AND EXPORTED MOST OF THEIR MALE CAPTIVES TO THE WEST INDIES. THE LOCATION OF THE SLAVE PORTS IN THE CARIBBEAN IS CONSISTENT WITH THIS HISTORY AS NONE OF THEM ARE FACING THE ATLANTIC (AFRICA) BUT RATHER THE WEST(NORTH AMERICA AND OTHER ISLANDS)