The Origin of European Ancestry*
Haplogroups M, N, & R are to Eurasia,
what L1, L2, & L3 are to the Interior of Africa.
Haplogroup N is the ancestral haplogroup to almost all clades today distributed in Europe and Oceania, as well as many found in Asia and the Americas.
In 2019, a study by Vai et al. presented evidence of a basal branch of haplogroup N from the Neolithic Sahara. In Sub-Saharan Africa, several ancient samples of N have been found, the oldest so far being K1a dating back to about 2000 BC in Kenya.
Haplogroup R is associated with the peopling of Eurasia after about 70,000 years ago, and is distributed in modern populations throughout the world outside of sub-Saharan Africa.
Haplogroup R is a descendant of the macro-haplogroup N, and its descendants are distributed all over Australasia, Americas, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, East Asia, and especially Europe.
Among the R clade’s descendant haplogroups are Haplogroup R0 (formerly known as haplogroup pre-HV).
The Kalash people in the remote part of the Hindu Kush Mountain range are one of the most genetically distinct populations in the world. Their mtDNA haplogroups (from a sample of 44 people) had it’s highest frequency at 22.7% * pre-HV haploid type.
Haplogroup R0 (formerly known as haplogroup pre-HV) derives from the macro-haplogroup R, and is therefore the ancestral clade and antecedent to the haplogroups H and V.
Hg- H is found in approximately 41-50% of native Europeans.
Hg- V is found in approximately 4% of natives Europeans.
Hg- U is found in approximately 11% of native Europeans.
Hg- K is found in approximately 10% of native Europeans.
Hg- J is found in approximately 12% of native Europeans.
Hg- T is found in approximately 10% of native Europeans.
JT (predominantly J) was found among the ancient Etruscans.
Haplogroup U was the dominant type of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Europe before the spread of agriculture into Europe and the presence and the spread of the Indo-Europeans in Western Europe.
Haplogroup U has various subclades numbered U1 to U9. Haplogroup K is a subclade of U8. The old age has led to a wide distribution of the descendant subgroups across Western Eurasia, North Africa, and South Asia
Today, 41-50% of all maternal lineages in Europe belong to haplogroup H. Haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA clade in Europe. The lineage is also common in North Africa and the Middle East.
While, Haplogroup V is a relatively rare mtDNA haplogroup, occurring in around 4% of native Europeans. Its highest concentration is in northern Scandinavians, occurring among 59% of the Saami people.