Eating of the seed 🌱🌴🌱
Nature’s medicine 🍐🍉🍐
Our Pharmacy is in the seed 🌱🌴🌱
Pills are Not Our Medicine 🚫💊🛇
The Foods you eat, should be as the Air,you breath,
In with the , Good .
Out with the, Bad.
The ( 5 ) Golden ( Naga-Rules ) of the,
( LIVE-IT ).
Rule # ( 1 ).
Eat only of the ” SEED “.
Rule # ( 2 ).
Never ” Eat & Drink ” at the Same Time.
Rule # ( 3 ).
Eat as the ” Table Earth ” ( Sb/Seb )
Prepares the ” Food “.
Rule # ( 4 ).
Never Eat to ” Your/Ones ” Fill.
Rule # ( 5 ).
Fast Occasionally.
Divine creator )( He/She ) of
” All existence ”
Master and possessor of
” Light & Radiation ”
” Heat & Movement ”
Bless us humble servants for
” Ankh/Life ”
Now present for were seek the council of the
” Ancient Ones ”
And practice daily the
” Ancient Maátian Ways ”
” Ancient Maátian Truths ”
We strive evermore too become ( 1 ) one with there in this world and in the existence to come,
On this the ,
( 248th. Hrw/Hru day)
” After the Helical Rising “

( 112 Hrw/Hru days remaining until )
” Ubn-Spdt/Sopdet/Sirius rising ”
( Wp-Rn-Pt-Djd-Hb )
( Nu-Years celebration ).

” 32nd. Hrw/Hru day:
7th. ( Abt =Month )

” 4th Hrw/Hru day ”
( MS-TA ).

” 8th. Hrw /Hru day ”
” 1st. ( Abt/Month),
” 3rd. Season ”
( PR-T/PER-T).

( Rn-Pt/Ren-Pet =Year # ( 8 )
” After founding of Nu-Khmt/Naga-Khmt/Smai-Tawii “.

Phenomenon of Precession
Great Golden Age
( Maát/Hapii/Asar )
( 7-32-08 )

We ask that you bless our families and friends & all those of us who gather together to worship in your most,
” Holy,Sacred and Glorious ”
Ancient ( Ta-Mrii )
” Rn/Ren = name of.
For in the art of seeking you there is much comfort.

So as it is ,
So let it be ,
So let it be,
So shall it,

For now and Forever Forward,
Rising always in divine excellence with Maát, all day every day.
Desire to acquire the ability to experience the phenomenon of being.
HRW/HRU =DAY # ( 248th. ).
After Helical Rising.

112 HRW/HRU = Day’s remaining until
” “Wp-rn-pt-djd-hb-nfru ”

32nd. Hrw/Hru = day
7th. ( Abr/Abet ) = Month

4th. HRW/HRU =Day
( MS-TA ).

8th HRW/HRU = Day
1st. ( ABT/ABET ) = Month
3rd. Season.
( PR-T/PER-T ).

RN-PT/YEAR # ( 8 )
After Founding of Nu-khmt/Naga-khmt/Smai-Tawi




( Aquarius/Ausaurius/Ausar/Asar ).
( 7-32-08 )
Eating of the seed 🌱🌴🌱
Nature’s medicine 🍐🍉🍐
Our Pharmacy is in the seed 🌱🌴🌱
Pills are Not Our Medicine 🚫💊🛇
The Foods you eat, should be as the Air,you breath,
In with the , Good .
Out with the, Bad.
The ( 5 ) Golden ( Naga-Rules ) of the,
( LIVE-IT ).
Rule # ( 1 ).
Eat only of the ” SEED “.
Rule # ( 2 ).
Never ” Eat & Drink ” at the Same Time.
Rule # ( 3 ).
Eat as the ” Table Earth ” ( Sb/Seb )
Prepares the ” Food “.
Rule # ( 4 ).
Never Eat to ” Your/Ones ” Fill.
Rule # ( 5 ).
Fast Occasionally.
Ramutef Qeb
Ast Nu’nt Amnt
Anuk Heru
Sharon Harper
Nicola Hurst
Nijeta Ankh AkaNutmeg
Bruce Loatman Sr.
Tonya Johnston
Leah Barrows
SaRa Soulflower Wright
Auset Meri Amen
Pelaiah Auset
Nteri Nelson Metaphysician
Teresa Gulley
Baaba Heru Speaks
Sunnu Valentine
Kaba Kamene
Sara Suten Seti
Frankie Garry
Gary Gary Foreman
Dorian Witherspoon
Conquest Phil
Philippe Shock Matthews
Adrean Jones
Amru Mri Ma’at
Khepra Ptah
Ptah Amen
Mebah Ptah Yodahe I
Ptah Williams
Fantan RA Ptah
Khepra Ptah
Braxton Taurus
Khepra Ptah
John Wyche
Herban Queen
Shiloh Jean-Louis
Jabari Osaze
Jamal E. Swiggett
Abdul K Wilkins
Atumuru Nefer-Temu Heru
Hrw/Hru = Day # ( 248th )
After Helical Rising .
( 112 Hrw/Hru = Days remaining until ( Ubn-Spdt )

32nd Hrw/Hru = Day,
7th. ( Abt ) = Month

4th. Hrw/Hru = Day
( MS-TA ).

8th.Hrw/Hru = Day
1st. ( Abt ) = Month
3rd. Season
( PR-T/PER-T ).

( Rn-Pt = Year # ( 8 )
A.F.N.K. / ST.
After Founding of Nu-khmt/Naga-khmt/Smai-Tawii

Phenomenon of Precession

Great Golden Age
( Maát/ Hapii/ Asar ).

( 7-32-08 )

Fraudulent Gregorian Chronological Timeline
Helenistic PARADIGM doctrines of
Mental, physical, Spiritual Subjugated Slavery



Friday March 29th. 2019
Gmt. Greenwich Mean Time
Utc. Universal Time Coordinated
( 3-29-19 )
THE RASAURIAN SOLAR CALENDAR (Single) by (Dana R. Williams) Ptah Seeker Ausar http://bit.ly/2BfSZSy

The ( 4 )Attributes of manifestation of, ( RA-NB-UR-TCHR-RA ).

# ( 1 ) ( TMU ) = To Think/Thought/To Plan; Field Force = ( ELECTROMAGNETISM )/Mentalism./Vibration/Wave/Frequency.

# ( 2) ) ( PTAH ) = The Door/ To Open/The Opener;
Field Force = ( STRONG FORCE )/ Cause & Effect/Dualism

# ( 3 ) ( AMN/AMEN ) = The Hidden One/Primordial Mound:
Field Force; = ( GRAVITY. )/Anti-Matter/Correspondence.

# ( 4 ) ( KHPRA/KHEPERA ) = Atomic Energy He who Evolves/Revolver of Evolutions/Hydrogen Atom/Expanding Universe. Fi☥👑☥☥👑☥☥👑☥☥👑☥☥👑☥☥👑☥☥👑


THE RASAURIAN SOLAR CALENDAR (Single) by (Dana R. Williams) Ptah Seeker Ausar http://bit.ly/2BfSZSy
A Kemetic Cosmic New Year with Kaba and Ptah http://bit.ly/2E7gPFB
THE RASAURIAN SOLAR CALENDAR is the oldest, and most precise system of recording time known to man.

It is derived from the Ancient Black African Egyptian’s concept of time and space.

Consider this pre-meditation for a calendar:

in the vernacular outer-space was the timeless void of darkness before the introduction of the light.

Ra was the light,

and as the light moved within the void time was introduced.

Our sun is a member of a trinity of suns,

that played major roles in the development of our quadrant of stars, planets, moons and life forms.

The word was given,

and the three stars began to move apart from one another.

Their names were,/are


As this separation occurred,

the surface of each,

became lessened by great masses of viscous matter

that seemed to escape into space,

only to be captured by the gravitational pull of its inceptor.

These three stars highlight much,

of what it is that we see today,

as we gaze upward and outward.

Our view is restricted only,

by the natural alignment of our earth

and our northern hemisphere.

From these bodies of light

come the makings of our zodiac,

our solar system

and all the visible constellations.

With this natural order as their grid,

the ten month solar calendar was fashioned.

Our solar system has ten heavenly bodies

and one sun that fathered and mothered nine planets

Thus they factored together a calendar of ten months.

Each month consisted of 36 days,

4 weeks in a month

and 9 days in a week.

They conceived of a system

of 60 seconds to a minute and 60 minutes to an hour.

This was done by

adding the 12 miles a second that it takes our sun (Ra) to travel around Alcyone.

Multiplied 10 times gave them 120 miles of movement in 60 seconds,

until realizing, that at each cycle of 60

a new star alignment occurred,

thus the Sidereal Year was born.

The rotation of the earth on its axis

was then calculated at 24 hours and 35 minutes in every day.

All that remained to have an accurate calendar

was to know the number of hours in the orbit of the earth around the sun.

However, without a geodite, or point of origin,

this was not feasible.

It came to be understood

that a sidereal sighting of Sirrius

occurred annually at the same time.

The sighting of Sirrius

provided the answer

to the number of hours in one orbit of the earth around the sun,

which is 8,766 hours.

Armed with this information

a calendar could be accurately devised

consisting of 10 months.

Each month had 36 days,

4 weeks in a month,

9 days in a week

and 8,766 hours in a year.

From the Zodiac

such as the one found at Dendera,

the Ancient Egyptians formulated the 10 month Solar Calendar.

This understanding is reflected

within the


which introduces itself

as a star chart

that is derived from the

Ancient Black African Egyptian

concept of time and space.

It would seem that a calendar

can only be the results of celestial movement,

be it moon or stars.



exhibits a grid of the calendar legend.

From year to year,

its structure is unchanged

and the periodic table,

the sighting of uncharted stars

confirms its cosmic intunement.

The Egyptian story behind calendar #2,

or the 365 1/4 day calendar

is clearly reflective

of Ancient Black African culture and literature.

Tehuti, the God of the moon

and Lord of the Sacred Order

and Sacred Writings,

petitioned the king of the Solar Order, Ra,

to consider changing the cosmic flow

just enough to allow for mankind to be born on Seb,

the earth.

Ra, (the sun),

who is the emblem of the light

that shines in the sky

was receptive to Lord Tehuti’s request.

However, he reminded his longtime friend

of his inability to alter the order of things.

He bade Tehuti

(the Lord of the Sacred Order and Writings)

to search the numbers

for a way which must be done within the existing order.

The answer lay in the 24 hour 35 minutes

that are required for one revolution

of the planet on its axis.

Lord Tehuti reasoned

that the cycle of darkness and light

would not be altered

if he gained possession of the 35 minutes

that completed every earth rotation.

According to the

Ancient Egyptian Legend

Tehuti (the god of the moon)

wagered with Ra (the god of the sun)

for this amount of time,

in a wager,

that was known only to the gods and goddesses.

Lord Tehuti was the victor.

He claimed his prize –

the 35 minutes of time that he gained control of,

leaving an exact

24 hours

in a cycle of 10 months

of 4 weeks

and 9 days

totaling 360.

These 35 minutes when multiplied by 360

totaled 5 and ¼ days,

added on to a year that still had 8,766 hours.

The 5 days that he implemented into the calendar

are called the ( Rn-Pt/Ren-Pet )

Or New Years,

Or in Greek terminology

The Apagomel days.

These days are visible

in the


in the month of



) with the moon going through its phases,

signaling the sighting of the star Sirrius,

and the 5 and ¼ days of observance,

until that star grid aligns again,

starting anew the year.

These 5 ¼ days

are accounted for by observance

and waiting for that star grid to align again.

Every second of the earth’s orbit

was accounted for in that singular revolution;

there was no need for Leap Year.

This was the exact time of the year

that the Great Mother Goddess Nut

gave birth to the gods and goddesses

(earth’s mankind).

Heru-ur was the 1st born,

and he represented universal dualism (day and night)

Ausaures (Orisis) was 2nd

in line in the birthing process

and is mankind’s paternal father,

and his domain was the after-life


Sut (Set) was the 3rd born,

and came to represent all that is evil in humankind –

but in his beginnings,

he was Ra’s #1 servant in the bark of Millions of Years,

(but that is another story).

The 4th born

was the Great Mother Goddess, Lady Ast (Isis),

the wife of Ausaures,

and it was she who was the maker of mankind.

The 5th born

was the Great Mother Goddess Nebt-Het (Nepthies).

This calendar

totaled 365 and ¼ day

and was known as the Tehutian Calendar.

This is the understanding that was lost, stolen,

and denied,

with the intervention of Julius Caesar

and the Romans.

It is obvious that the Romans

dissected the Tehutian Calendar

that is used today,

adding Latin names and interpretations,

and the concept of leap year.

Remember, the word calendar

originates from the Latin word calendae.

THE ROMAN CALENDAR: The third calendar that appears within the RASAURIAN SOLAR CALENDAR, solar grid is called the Roman Calendar, or the Gregorian Calendar. History tells us that Julius Caesar, after seizing control of Egypt in 48 B.C., altered the Roman calendar which was also based on a 10 month solar grid. In fact, the Romans copied the system first introduced by Lord Tehuti, only the names have been changed. Ptah, (the door) month of the Ancient Egyptians, became Janus, (January, the door month of the Romans). The Roman god Janus had a mate, Fevere, who became February. Mars, their war god, was the 3rd month, and today is called March. The mate of Mars was Avil, now called April. May, the god of vegetation, was their 5th month and his mate, Jui (June) was their 6th month. After June, they ran out of names because their culture was barely three hundred years old. They completed their calendar with numbers, Roman numbers. Sept is the Latin root words for #7 (September), but it is our 9th month in the Gregorian Calendar. Octo is the Latin root word for #8, but it is our 9th month. Nove is the Latin root word for #9, but it is our 11th month, and Dec is the Latin root word for #10, but it is our 12th month. This is because of two historical figures (Julius Caesar), July and (Augustus Caesar) August.

The great Caesar altered this great order because the Roman Calendar was not dependable. It was based on the cycles of the moon where each cycle of the moon took 29 ½ days. Compiling a calendar of 12 months would result in a year that is only 354 days long; if we add 13 we arrive at 383 ½ days. There is no correct solution if the moon is the principle inspiration. Today it is known that it takes 365 days, 5 hours and 48 minutes and 46 seconds for the earth to complete a revolution of the sun, which designates a year (the aging process). This created a problem of what to do with the extra 5 hours and 48 minutes and 46 seconds. How can the extra time be taken into account? The European answer (???!!!) was Leap Year to make up the extra time one day is added to the calendar every 4 years. Because of this many uncertainties have occurred, causing other cultures to create or retain their own calendars. The month of Julius (July) was inserted after the month of June and the numbers were not changed, just moved back. Shortly after this, Julius Caesar was assassinated. Augustus Caesar followed and thought that he should also have a month for his name, and it was done. This month was called August, and it followed July, the month of his adopted grandfather, Julius Caesar. The remainder of months were pushed back yet another notch. This produced the Roman Calendar of 12 month, 365 and ¼ days with 7 days a week and a 24 hour cycle of day and night. On the RASAURIAN SOLAR CALENDAR, the Roman or Gregorian Calendar or New Style Calendar is superimposed on the solar grid, making it a practical calendar for the everyday use for the modern world. It can be recognized by the 12 cartouches (oval boxes) that bear the names of the Roman/Gregorian/or New Style Calendar, followed by their system of days allotted to each month. A day was added every four years bringing the number of days to 366. This caused the days of the week to move forward one box on the solar grid. This is why a new calendar is needed every year. This complicated system was developed by the Egyptian Astronomer, Susoquenes. When it first appeared it was called the Greco, Egyptian, Caesarian Calendar.

THE EPAGAMAL DAYS: The most sacred of all the days in the Ancient Egyptian Solar Calendar, were know was the Epagamal Days. On these 5 ¼ days, the earth was stocked with life. Human beings, known as the Gods and Goddesses, were born into the domain of flesh, blood, earth and water. These five plus ¼ days ended the old year and welcomed in the new year. It is only by completely understanding the concept of the Epagamal Days that allows us to see the true genius of these Ancient black African Egyptian men and women. Nine thousand years ago and more, these Nubians understood the complication of sidereal time. This knowledge was unknown to the Europeans until the late 17th century. It involves the ability to measure the speed of light, the movement of the stars and the planets and moons in our solar system, etc. and the seconds, minutes, and hours of the earth’s rotation on its axis, and the elliptical orbit around the sun. Added to the sighting of the star Sirrius you have a calendar year. On these factors was based the exactness of the Ancient Egyptian Solar calendar. By removing the 35 minutes that completes the rotational cycle of the earth on its axis, our earth arrives 5 and ¼ days early for its annual junction with Sirrius. Another way to look at it is: the 24 hours a day calendar is 5 1/4 days ahead of the orbital pace of the earth. Therefore, for 5 and ¼ days the Ancient Egyptians celebrated the ending of the old year and the beginning of the new year while they waited for the sighting of the star (Sirrius) that signaled the start of the new year. The Epagamal Days appear on the legend, in the month of Ptah, which is the month of July. Beginning on the 20th of July, their year ends, and the 5 ¼ days are visible. In the month of Ptah with the moon going through its phases, signaling the sighting of the star Sirrius, and the 5 ¼ days of observance. The ¼ day is denoted by ¼ of a human head underneath the body of the Great Mother Goddess Nut (the Sky). These circles with a dot represent the days that each of the earth Gods and Goddesses were born, and the ¼ of a face is equal to a ¼ day, concluding on the 25th, signaling the beginning of the ( Rn-Pt ) Nu-year.
On the Ancient Egyptian Rasaurian Three-In-One Solar Calendar’s solar grid, the year ends in Ptah, and begins in the month of Djhuti .
In conclusion, we must understand that there are only 360 solar cycles of 24 hours, 35 minutes annually, and that there are 365 and ¼ days of 24-hour cycles in a solar year. In the Epagamal Days method both are accounted for and there is no need for Leap Year.



Sunday: (European) The day of the Sun; (African) The day of (Ra), Khemetic

Monday: ( European) The day of the moon, (African) The day of the (Tehuti), the moon. Khemetic

Tuesday: (European) Named after (Twi), the Roman Goddess of the home. Latin/Spanish = Martes=Mars

Wednesday: (European) From the Norse God (Wooden/,Odin), the Lord of Asgard (Vikings).latin/Spanish =Miercoles=Mercury.

Thursday: (European) Named after (Thor), the son of (Wooden/Odin) (Vikings).latin/Spanish =Jueves=Jupiter

Friday: (European) Named after (Frigga), the Roman Goddess of conjugal merriment. Latin/Spanish =Viernes =

Saturday: (African) Named after the planet Saturn.

The Inner Square – Zodiac Signs:

(Aries/Amn/Amen) fire sign, yellow,

(Taurus/Ptah) earth sign, brown,

(Gemini/Shu & Tf-Nut) air sign, silver,

(Cancer/Khpra) water sign, blue,

(Leo/ Skh-Mt/Heru-Khutii ) fire sign, yellow,

(Virgo/Ast) earth sign, brown,

(Libra/Maát/Up-Uat ), air sign, silver,

(Scorpio/Slkh-t), water sign, blue,

(Saggitarius/Nit/Neith ) fire sign, yellow,

(Capricorn/Amm-t) earth sign, brown,

(Aquarius/Maát/Hapii/Asar) air sign, silver,

(Pisces/St/Set) water, blue.

The Outer Square:

Ancient Egyptian names of the Gods and Goddesses of the days of the week:

(Hrw/day(1) Ra,
(Hrw/day (2) Djhuti
(Hrw/day (3) Sb/Seb
(Hrw/day (4) Ast,
(Hrw/day (5) Ms-ta,
(Hrw/day (6) Hapii,
(Hrw/day (7) Tua-Mut-f,
(Hrw/day (8) Qub-Sn-f,
(Hrw/day (9) Hru.

Days 5 thru 9 are the four children of Heru the Younger.
Their attributes are the 4 pillars of Nut: the sky/heaven, the cardinal points, and the 4 elements.

First circular ring: [Inner ] The Ancient Egyptian names of the Gods and Goddesses of the ( Abt )
Months of the Year.
# (1) Djhuti ,
# (2) Rn-N-Nut ,
# (3) Sobk ,
# (4) Min,
# (5) Ht-Hrw,
# (6) Hrw/Hru/Heru,
# (7) Apt/Ta-Waur-t ,
# (8) Heru-Khutii
# (9) Skh-Mt,
# (10) Ptah.


# (1) ( Maát/Hapii/Asar ) = ( Aquarius ) ” Air ”
# (2) ( Am-Mut ) = ( Capricorn ) ” Earth ”
# (3) ( Nth/Neith ) = ( Sagittarius ) ” Fire ”
# (4) ( Slk-t/Selket) = ( Scorpio ) ” Water ”
# (5) ( ( Up-Uat ) = ( Libra ) ” Air ”
# (6) ( Ast/Aset/Auset ) = ( Virgo) ” Earth ”
# (7) ( Skh-Mt/Heru-Khutii ) = ( Leo ) ” Fire ”
# (8) ( Khpra/Khepera ) = ( Cancer ) ” Water ”
# (9) ( Shu & Tf-Nut/Tef-Nut ) = ( Gemini ) ” Air ”
# (10) ( Ptah ) = ( Taurus ) ” Earth ”
# (11) ( Amn-Ra/Amen-Ra ) = ( Aries) ” Fire ”
# (12) ( St/Sut/Set ) = ( Pisces ) ” Water ”

Schools will find that the calendar meets the learning objectives for: Math, Language, Science, Astrology, and Astronomy.

For more information as a download for your wireless Cell-Phone, Digital Camera, I-Pods and the Internet please log on to our web-site:

Intrafarance@gmail.com danawilliams2181@yahoo.com
Lunario Novo, Secondo la Nuova Riforma della Correttione del l’Anno Riformato da N.S. Gregorio XIII printed by Vincenzo Accolti in 1582, one of the first printed editions of the new calendar.The Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional (or old style) dating system to the modern (or new style) dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some countries adopted the new calendar from 1582 but others did not do so before the early twentieth century, others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. In the western world, the change was a simple date shift from the previous Julian Calendar but in the east the change from their old style lunisolar calendar was a more significant one. Today, the Gregorian calendar is internationally the world’s most widely used civil calendar.[1][2][3] During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them.

The Gregorian calendar was decreed in 1582 by the papal bull Inter gravissimas by Pope Gregory XIII, to correct a divergence in the canonical date of the [northern] spring equinox from observed reality (due to an error in the Julian system) that affected the calculation of the date of Easter. Although Gregory’s reform was enacted in the most solemn of forms available to the Church, the bull had no authority beyond the Catholic Church and the Papal States. The changes that he was proposing were changes to the civil calendar, over which he had no authority. They required adoption by the civil authorities in each country to have legal effect.

The bull became the canon law of the Catholic Church in 1582, but it was not recognised by Protestant churches, Orthodox churches, and a few others. Consequently, the days on which Easter and related holidays were celebrated by different Christian churches again diverged.The Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. A regular Gregorian year consists of 365 days, but as in the Julian calendar, in a leap year, a leap day is added to February. In the Julian calendar a leap year occurs every 4 years, but the Gregorian calendar omits 3 leap days every 400 years. In the Julian calendar, this leap day was inserted by doubling 24 February, and the Gregorian reform did not change the date of the leap day. In the modern period, it has become customary to number the days from the beginning of the month, and 29 February is often considered as the leap day. Some churches, notably the Roman Catholic Church, delay February festivals after the 23rd by one day in leap years.[The intention expressed by the text of this bull was “to restore” the calendar so that seasonal events critical for the calculation of Easter dates would be back in their “proper places” and would be prevented from being moved away again. The idea of reform as such is not otherwise mentioned. The bull identifies “three necessary” things for the correct determination of Easter dates: correct placement of the northern vernal equinox; correct identification of the “14th day of the moon” (effectively full moon) that happens on or next after the vernal equinox, and the first Sunday that follows that full moon. The first two items were the ones that received attention; the third, about choosing the next following Sunday, was not identified as causing any problem, and was not further mentioned.

By “restore”, Gregory meant two things. First, he adjusted the calendar so that the vernal equinox was near March 21, where it had been during the Council of Nicaea (May 20 – August 25, 325). This required removing ten days of drift. Second, he made the tabular 14th day of the moon correspond with the real full moon, removing “four days and more” of drift. This would restore the dates of Easter to near where they were at the time of the Council of Nicaea, although that council had not specified where in the calendar the vernal equinox should fall and had not adopted any particular type of lunar tables. The practices of the Roman Catholic Church that had become traditional by 1582 for calculating the Easter and lunar calendars became settled when Dionysius Exiguus translated the rules of the Church of Alexandria from Greek into Latin in 525. (Northumbria adopted them at Whitby in 664, the Welsh around 768, and France around 775. Before this, France and Rome had used Victorius’s less exact 457 translation of the Alexandrian calendar; Britain and Rome before Victorius had used Augustalis’s 84-year cycle.)

Gregory also made changes to the calendar rules, intending to ensure that, in the future, the equinox and the 14th day of the Paschal moon, and consequently Easter Sunday, would not move away again from what the bull called their proper places.

The changes (relative to the Julian calendar) were as follows:

Reduction of the number of leap years – centennial years, such as 1700, 1800, and 1900 ceased to be leap years, but years that can be divided by 400, such as 1600 and 2000 continued to be;
Turning back extra days – October 4, 1582, was to be followed by October 15, 1582, and these 10 missing days were not to be counted in calculating end days of loans, taxes etc.;
Easter was to be computed with reference not only to the new March 21, but also by the use of new Paschal tables.
The name of the bull consists of the first two words of the bull, which starts: “Inter gravissimas pastoralis officii nostri curas…” (“Among the most serious duties of our pastoral office…”).

The bull refers to “the explanation of our calendar” and to a canon related to the dominical letter. To accompany the bull there were six chapters of explanatory rulesThe bull refers to “the explanation of our calendar” and to a canon related to the dominical letter. To accompany the bull there were six chapters of explanatory rules (‘canons’),[3] and some of these (canons 1, 2, 4) refer to a book entitled Liber novæ rationis restituendi calendarii Romani for a fuller explanation of the tables than that contained in the canons (or the bull). Because the bull and canons refer to each other, they must have been written at roughly the same time, printed at the same time (March 1), and distributed to the several countries together.

These canons enabled the computation of Easter dates in the reformed (‘restored’) Gregorian calendar, and gave two calendar-listings saints’ days, one for the ‘year of correction’ (1582) and another for the entire new Gregorian year. The bull, canons, and calendars were reprinted as part of the principal book explaining and defending the Gregorian calendar, Christoph Clavius, Romani calendarii a Gregorio XIII. P. M. restituti explicatio (1603), which is tome V in his collected works Opera Mathematica (1612)The version of “Inter gravissimas” included by Christoph Clavius in his work explaining the Gregorian calendar contained these dating clauses: “Anno Incarnationis Dominicae M. D. LXXXI. Sexto Calend. Martij, Pontificatus nostri Anno Decimo. … Anno à Natiuitate Domini nostri Iesu Christi Millesimo Quingentesimo Octuagesimo secundo Indictione decima,”. These clauses include four years:

“Anno Incarnationis Dominicae M. D. LXXXI.” (In the year of the Incarnation of the Lord 1581) is the year beginning March 25, 1581. March 25 is the traditional date of the conception, annunciation, and incarnation of Jesus.
“Pontificatus nostri Anno Decimo” (In the tenth year of our pontificate) is the year beginning May 13, 1581. Gregory XIII was elected pope on May 13, 1572 (in terms of the Julian calendar).
“Anno à Natiuitate Domini nostri Iesu Christi Millesimo Quingentesimo Octuagesimo secundo” (In the year from the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ 1582) is the year beginning December 25, 1581 using the modern January 1 beginning of the year. It marks the beginning of year 1582 if that year began on December 25, the traditional date of the birth or nativity of Jesus.
“Indictione decima” (Indiction 10) is the year beginning January 1, which agrees with modern reckoning.
All of these years agree that the bull was dated February 24, 1582, using the modern January 1 beginning of the year.The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar backwards to dates preceding AD 4 when the quadrennial leap year stabilized. The leap years that were actually observed between the implementation of the Julian calendar in 45 BC and AD 4 were erratic: see the Julian calendar article for details.

A calendar obtained by extension earlier in time than its invention or implementation is called the “proleptic” version of the calendar. Likewise, the proleptic Gregorian calendar is occasionally used to specify dates before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582. Because the Julian calendar was used before that time, one must explicitly state that a given quoted date is based on the proleptic Gregorian calendar if that is the case.

Note that the Julian calendar itself was introduced by Julius Caesar, and as such is older than the introduction of the Dionysian era (or the “Common Era”, counting years since the birth of Christ as calculated by Dionysus Exiguus in the 6th century, and widely used in medieval European annals since the about 8th century, notably by Bede). The proleptic Julian calendar uses the Dionysian era throughout, including for dates of Late Antiquity when the Julian calendar was in use but the Dionysian era wasn’t, and for times predating the introduction of the Julian calendar. Years are given cardinal numbers, using inclusive counting (AD 1 is the first year of the Dionysian era, immediately preceded by 1 BC, the first year preceding the Dionysian era, there is no “zeroth” year). Thus, the year 1 BC of the proleptic Julian calendar is a leap year.

This is to be distinguished from the “astronomical year numbering”, introduced in 1740 by French astronomer Jacques Cassini, which considers each New Year an integer on a time axis, with year 0 corresponding to 1 BC, and “year -1” corresponding to 2 BC, so that in this system, Julian year leap years have a number divisible by four.

The determination of leap years in the proleptic Julian calendar (in either numbering) is distinct from the question of which years were historically considered leap years during the Roman era, due to the leap year error: Between 45 BC and AD 4, the leap day was somewhat unsystematic. Thus there is no simple way to find an equivalent in the proleptic Julian calendar of a date quoted using the Roman pre-Julian calendar (AUC or by reference to consuls). The year 46 BC itself is a special case, because of the historical introduction of the Julian calendar in that year, it was allotted 445 days. Before then, the Roman Republican calendar used a system of intercalary months rather than leap days, but the Julian system of leap days had already been in use since 238 BC in Ptolemaic Egypt, since the Decree of Canopus reforming the Egyptian calendar.Roman pre-Julian calendar (AUC or by reference to consulsThe Roman Calendar
Roman dates were calculated “from the founding of the city” of Rome, or ab urbe condita (AUC). This was assumed to be 750 BC, although calculations by Marcus Terentius Varro in the 1st century BC determined 753 BC to be the founding date. An alternative system had become more common even by Varro’s time, whereby the Romans referred to the names of the consuls rather than the date of the year. References to the year of consulship were used in both conversation and official records. There were two consuls at any one time, and sometimes they each held several terms, meaning that one had to be well educated in history to understand the references. The two systems were compatible; so that the consulship of Quintus Fufius Calenus and Publius Vatinius could be determined as 707 AUC (or 47 BC), the consulship of Caius Julius Caesar (III) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as 708 AUC (or 46 BC), and the consulship of Caius Julius Caesar (IV) as 709 AUC (or 45 BC).The ancient Athenian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with 354 day years, consisting of twelve months of alternating length of 29 or 30 days. To keep the calendar in line with the solar year of 365.25 days, an extra, intercalary month was added in every other year. The Athenian months were called Hekatombion, Metageitnion, Boedromion, Pyanepsion, Maimakterion, Poseidon, Gamelion, Anthesterion, Elaphebolion, Munychion, Thargelion, and Skirophorion. The intercalary month usually came after Poseidon, and was called second Poseidon.

In addition to their regular, “festival” calendar, the Athenians maintained a second, political calendar . This “conciliar” calendar divided the year into “prytanies”, one for each of the “phylai”, the subdivisions of Athenian citizens. The number of phylai, and hence the number of prytanies, varied over time. Until 307 BCE, there were 10 phylai. After that the number varies between 11 and 13 (usually 12). Even more confusing, while the conciliar and festival years were about the same length in the 4th century BCE, such was not regularly the case earlier or later. documents dated by prytany are frequently very difficult to assign to a particular equivalent in the Gregorian calendar.This article is about the year numbering system. For the book, see ab urbe condita libri.
“ab urbe condita” (related to “anno urbis conditae”; A. U. C., AUC, a.u.c.; also “anno urbis”, short a.u.[1]) is a Latin phrase meaning “from the founding of the City (Rome)”,[2] traditionally dated to 753 BC. AUC is a year-numbering system used by some ancient Roman historians to identify particular Roman years. Renaissance editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the Romans usually numbered their years using the AUC system. The dominant method of identifying Roman years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year. The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use. Examples of continuous numbering include counting by regnal year, principally found in the writings of German authors, for example Mommsen’s History of Rome, and (most ubiquitously) in the Anno Domini year-numbering system.From Emperor Claudius (reigned 41–54 AD) onwards, Varro’s calculation (see below) superseded other contemporary calculations. Celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda. Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in honour of the city’s anniversary, in 48 AD, 800 years after the founding of the city. Hadrian and Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in 121 AD and 147/148 AD respectively.
During 248 AD, Philip the Arab celebrated Rome’s first millennium, together with Ludi saeculares for Rome’s alleged tenth saeculum. Coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. A coin by a contender for the imperial throne, Pacatianus, explicitly states “Year one thousand and first”, which is an indication that the citizens of the Empire had a sense of the beginning of a new era, a Saeculum Novum.
When the Roman Empire turned Christian during the following century, this imagery came to be used in a more metaphysical sense, and removed legal impediments to the development and public use of the Anno Domini dating system, which came into general use during the reign of Charlemagne.
Calculation by Varro
The traditional date for the founding of Rome of 21 April 753 BC, was initiated by Varro. Varro may have used the consular list with its mistakes, and called the year of the first consuls “245 ab urbe condita”, accepting the 244-year interval from Dionysius of Halicarnassus for the kings after the foundation of Rome. The correctness of Varro’s calculation has not been proven scientifically but is still used worldwide.
Relationship with Anno Domini
The Anno Domini year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome during 525, as a result of his work on calculating the date of Easter. In his Easter table the year 532 AD was equated with the regnal year 248 of Emperor Diocletian. The table counted the years starting from the presumed birth of Christ, rather than the accession of the emperor Diocletian on 20 November 284, or as stated by Dionysius: “sed magis elegimus ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi annorum tempora praenotare…”[3] Blackburn and Holford-Strevens review interpretations of Dionysius which place the Incarnation in 2 BC, 1 BC, or 1 AD.[4] It was later calculated (from the historical record of the succession of Roman consuls) that the year 1 AD corresponds to the Roman year 754 AUC, based on Varro’s epoch. This however resulted in that year not corresponding with the lifetimes of historical figures reputed to be alive, or otherwise mentioned in connection with the Christian incarnation, e.g. Herod the Great or Quirinius.[5]
1 ab urbe condita = 753 Before Christ or BC
2 AUC = 752 BC
749 AUC = 5 BC
750 AUC = 4 BC (Death of Herod the Great)
753 AUC = 1 BC
754 AUC = 1 Anno Domini
755 AUC = 2 AD
759 AUC = 6 AD (Quirinius becomes governor of Syria)
2206 AUC = 1453 AD (Fall of Constantinople)
2700 AUC = 1947 AD
2753 AUC = 2000 AD
2768 AUC = 2015 AD
2778 AUC = 2025 AD
2800 AUC = 2047 AD
2813 AUC = 2060 AD
3000 AUC = 2247 ADAntoninianus of Pacatianus, usurper of Roman emperor Philip in 248. It bears the legend ROMAE AETER[NAE] AN[NO] MIL[LESIMO] ET PRIMO, “To eternal Rome, in its one thousand and first year”.
“Ab urbe condita” (Classical orthography: ABVRBECONDITÁ; Latin pronunciation: [ab ˈʊrbɛ ˈkɔndɪtaː]; related to “anno urbis conditae”; A. U. C., AUC, a.u.c.; also “anno urbis”, short a.u.[1]) is a Latin phrase meaning “from the founding of the City9 (Rome)”,[2] traditionally dated to 753 BC. AUC is a year-numbering system used by some ancient Roman historians to identify particular Roman I9years. Renaissance editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the Romans usually numbered their years using the AUC system. The douminant method of identifying Roman years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year. The regnal year of the emperor iwas also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after 537 when Justinian required its use.
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