From Chicago Defender (the leading black-owned paper in the U.S.):

• November 1913: “Richest Colored Girl Forced to Live in Shack” claimed the white guardian made “a fabulous sum of money a year,” doling out only a “few dollars a month” for Sarah’s care; insisted she would be better with a black guardian; berated her parents as “ignorant” and “too ignorant to insist on a good education and befitting comfort for her.”

• November 1913: “Brown Skinned Colored Girl Made White” has a dateline of Guthrie, Oklahoma. The text says, “Oklahoma passed a law declaring all Indians white and is about to make an Afro-American young lady the same hue on account of her millions. She would be given special privilege to ride across the state in a Pullman car where it is denied others of her race.” It continues, “White People Alarmed” and “…They do not like such wealth belonging to a girl of Afro-American blood so Oklahoma is passing a law to the effect that this brown girl will be white.”


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